Scottish Cities

Underemployment rate in selected Scottish cities and Scotland, 2004-2018

Underemployment   Scottish Cities  2020

Click on graph to expand

The rate of underemployment increased in Scotland from 2008 to 2012 as a result of the financial crisis, peaking at 10% of the working population in 2012. The Glasgow rate, which had been above 12% in 2012, dropped to 9% between 2013 and 2018 and was slightly above the Scottish average rate in 2018. In 2018, Edinburgh had the lowest rate of underemployment among Scottish cities, while Aberdeen had the highest rate.


Underemployment includes all employed persons aged 16 and over who were willing to work additional hours, meaning that they:

  • wanted another job in addition to their current job(s), or
  • wanted another job with more hours instead of their current job(s), or
  • wanted to increase the total number of hours worked in their current job(s).

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