Loss of Industrial Employment

The graphs below are derived from GCPH's research on the causes of 'excess mortality' in Glasgow and Scotland. The link between the effects of deindustrialisation (for example unemployment, poverty, de-skilling and role redefinition) and population health is well understood, and many post-industrial areas are characterised by adverse social, economic and health outcomes.

Industrial employment as a proportion of total employment in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester, 1931-2001

Industrial employment trendclick on graph to expand

All three cities experienced profound industrial employment decline. Between 1931 and 2001 levels of industrial employment in these cities decreased by similar amounts, by between approximately 83% (Glasgow and Liverpool) and 86% (Manchester). 

Loss of industrial employment compared across countries (Scotland, England and Wales) and cities (Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester), 1971-2001
Industrial employment loss
click on graph to expand

This graph emphasises the acceleration of de-industrialisation from the 1970s onwards in the UK and, in particular, in the cities of Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester.


As noted above these graphs are drawn from GCPH research on the causes of 'excess mortality' in Glasgow and in Scotland. It has frequently been proposed that Scotland, in particular West Central Scotland and Glasgow, has experienced more severe levels of de-industrialisation which, in turn, has impacted on mortality rates.

In relation to excess mortality in Glasgow, the research concluded that 'the data suggest the experiences of de-industrialisation (at least in terms of total numbers of jobs lost) have been very similar in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. Given that the experience of de-industrialisation coincides with the emergence of the mortality phenomena, and the well evidenced links to health outcomes across time and place, it is likely to be part of the causal pathway in Scotland and Glasgow – but in interaction with other factors in Glasgow’s case, given that the degree of exposure is very similar to Liverpool and Manchester.'

For further information on the 'excess mortality' research go to the excess mortality page on the GCPH website.

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